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Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a noninvasive thermal therapy method caused by near-infrared (NIR) light energy excited photothermal agents to selectively achieve cancer cell ablation, which is different from photodynamic therapy in that it is an oxygen-free and reactive oxygen species-free process mediated by photothermal agents. The photothermal agents play a vital role in the PTT treatment, ideal photothermal agents should have strong absorption efficiency in NIR region, which is the biological tissue transparent window that can effectively convert the absorbed NIR light into heat. In addition, the photothermal agents in PTT should be non-toxic and show high tumor-homing ability, to improve curative effect without producing harmful side effects. MOFs and COFs with good biocompatibility and its tunable property that can easily absorb NIR light energy and open pore channels that allow for the rapid transport of produced heat. Thus, it could be expected that the use of MOFs and COFs is an attractive approach for developing photothermal agents.
Photothermal therapy utilizing photothermal agents generates sufficient heat under laser irradiation to result in notable damage of tumors. When excited by light of a specific wavelength (usually in NIR range), electrons in photothermal agents change from ground state to excited state and then return to its ground state and releases vibrational energy to generate heat, which causes the protein denaturation, alters the multimolecular structures such as membranes and the enzyme complexes, then leading to thermal ablation of cancer cells and subsequent cell death. Primary malignant tumors are more sensitive to temperature changes due to their poor blood circulation, primary malignant, which can be effectively killed when temperature is maintained above 42 °C in 10 min or above 50 °C in only 5 min.
Fig.1 The schematic diagram of photothermal therapy
Depending on the relationship between photothermal agents and MOFs and COFs, MOFs and COFs-based PTT can be divided into two types: (i) intrinsic photothermal MOFs and COFs, and (ii) Modifications via photothermal agents.
Fig.2 Preparation of Py-BPy+·-COF
MOFs and COFs produced by Alfa Chemistry show great photothermal property when used in photothermal therapy, promoting the development of cancer treatment. Alfa Chemistry also provides customers with professional MOFs and COFs design and customization services, in which our professional technology team has profound research experience in the field of photothermal therapy. No matter what design ideas you have, we will implement them together with you. In addition, we are committed to supporting customers a series of solutions in photothermal therapy using MOFs and COFs. Please contact us immediately to order or cooperate in research and development with high quality and reasonable price.
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